Living without Storyboards: Make a Working Stopwatch in Sprite Kit

Over the last few posts we’ve made a clock and stopwatch application in Sprite Kit. Last time, we added an animated button display for the stopwatch. This time we get the stopwatch buttons working.

Get Our Variables in Order

We will use several variables in our changes. Change our variables to the following:

@implementation MPMyScene{
    SKLabelNode *myTimeLabel;
    SKLabelNode *myDateLabel;
    BOOL isShowingTime;
    BOOL isStopwatch;           //changed from isStopWatch for clarity
    BOOL isResettingStopwatch;  //changed from isStartingStopwatch for clarity.
    BOOL isRunningStopwatch;
    CFTimeInterval startTime;
    CFTimeInterval previousElapsedTime;
    CFTimeInterval elapsedTimeInterval;
    CFTimeInterval totalElapsedTime;
}

We changed two variables used in earlier iterations. One was a misspelling, the other makes more sense as isResettingStopwatch.

We will also  initialize these. Add  into initWithSize:

        //initialize everything else
        isShowingTime = YES;
        isStopwatch = NO;
        previousElapsedTime = 0.0;
        isRunningStopwatch = NO;
        isResettingStopwatch = NO;

How to Make a Stopwatch

Our previous stopwatch started and stopped using the mode button. We set a variable startTime when we began the stopwatch and subtracted that value from the currentTime parameter of the update: method. That will not work when adding start and stop buttons. When the clock stops, currentTime will continue. Starting again gives us the elapsed time from entering the stopwatch mode, not from when we started and stopped the stopwatch. We therefore have another variable previousElapsedTime, This variable, when we stop the stopwatch, sets the time from our last start and stop. The currentTime and previous time then get added into a third variable elapsedTimeInterval. When we stop the watch, we set the previousElapsedTime to the value for elapsedTimeInterval.

Check for Events with touchesBegan:

Next is a big re-write of the touchesBegan: method. Replace the earlier method with this one:

-(void)touchesBegan:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {

    //find where the buttons are
    CGRect modeRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Mode"] frame];
    CGRect startRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Start"] frame];
    CGRect stopRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Stop"] frame];
    CGRect resetRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Reset"] frame];

    //scan the touches for button presses
    for (UITouch *touch in touches) {
        CGPoint touchPoint =[touch locationInNode:self];
        //--------------------------code for mode button
        if (CGRectContainsPoint(modeRect, touchPoint)){
            [self modePressed];
        }
        //--------------------------code for starting Stopwatch button
        else if (CGRectContainsPoint(startRect, touchPoint)){
            [self startPressed];
        }else if (CGRectContainsPoint(stopRect, touchPoint )){
        //--------------------------code for stopping Stopwatch button
            [self stopPressed];
        }else if (CGRectContainsPoint(resetRect, touchPoint)) {
        //--------------------------code for resetting Stopwatch button
            [self resetPressed];
        }else{
// shut down Stopwatch if touching anywhere else on screen.
            [self screenPressed];
        }
    }
}

The code had two major parts:

  • Identify the locations of the buttons
  • Parse the touch events from the location of the buttons

We removed all the handling code and made it separate methods. This is just good practice. While not quite MVC, it helps organize the code into parts for detecting the event and parts for handling it. If we implemented a more formal MVC, breaking things down this way makes transitioning to seperate classes much easier.

Make Event Handlers

Next, make  the event handlers. Add this above the method touchesBegan:

#pragma mark -----target action
-(void)moveDateOnTop:(BOOL)isDate{

    //set positions for display elements
    CGPoint topDisplay = [self gridPointX:2.5 pointY:4];
    CGPoint bottomDisplay = [self gridPointX:2.5 pointY:3.0];

    //make two actions for use
    SKAction *labelHideAction = [SKAction group:@[
                                                  [SKAction fadeAlphaTo:0.2 duration:3.0],
                                                  [SKAction moveToY:bottomDisplay.y duration:3.0]
                                                  ]];
    SKAction *labelShowAction = [SKAction group:@[
                                                  [SKAction fadeInWithDuration:3],
                                                  [SKAction moveToY:topDisplay.y duration:3.0]]];

    //remove the previous action.
    [myTimeLabel removeActionForKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
    [myDateLabel removeActionForKey:@"dateLabelAction"];

    //run the appropriate action
    if (isDate) {
        [myTimeLabel runAction:labelHideAction withKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
        [myDateLabel runAction:labelShowAction withKey:@"dateLabelAction"];
    }else{

        [myTimeLabel runAction:labelShowAction withKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
        [myDateLabel runAction:labelHideAction withKey:@"dateLabelAction"];

    }

}

-(void)screenPressed{
    isStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime = totalElapsedTime ;
    //move buttons back
    [self animatedStopwatchMenuOpen:NO];
    //toggle action
    [self moveDateOnTop: isShowingTime];
    isShowingTime = !isShowingTime;

}

This was the code we originally had in touchesBegan: to move the date and time up and down. It is now two methods. In screenPressed: we handle the event, adding one assignment from our earlier version which saves our stopwatch time if we hit the screen. The moveDateOnTop: animates the date and time transition.

Next we have the handler for the mode button, which again is  code from the old version of touchesBegan: moved into a method:

-(void)modePressed{
    //---------------------code for stopwatch here
    //show the stopwatch buttons
    [self animatedStopwatchMenuOpen:YES];
    //display the date on top
    [self moveDateOnTop:YES];
    isStopwatch = YES;
    isResettingStopwatch = YES;
    isShowingTime = NO;
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
}

We’ve split the variable isStartingStopwatch into two flags: isResettingStopwatch and isRunningStopwatch. When we had only one button, these were the same function. Now that we have the start, stop and reset buttons, they are different functions.

Add the three handlers for the buttons.

-(void)startPressed{
    isRunningStopwatch = YES;
}
-(void)stopPressed{
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime += elapsedTimeInterval;
}
-(void)resetPressed{
    isResettingStopwatch = YES;
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime = 0;
}

Change the Game Loop Method

Finally, we change the stopwatch code in the update: method to the following:

if(isStopwatch){
        CFGregorianDate elapsedTime;
        //start the stopwatch by getting a point for elapsed time
        if(isResettingStopwatch){
            startTime=currentTime;
            isResettingStopwatch=NO;
        }

        if (isRunningStopwatch) { //get the time interval
        //update the time in the stopwatch
            elapsedTimeInterval =currentTime - startTime;
        } else { //keep start and current time the same for the next start of the watch
            elapsedTimeInterval = 0;
            startTime = currentTime;
        }

        totalElapsedTime =(elapsedTimeInterval + previousElapsedTime);
        //format and display the time
        elapsedTime  = CFAbsoluteTimeGetGregorianDate(totalElapsedTime, nil);
        NSString *formattedDateString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%02d:%02d:%04.2f", elapsedTime.hour, elapsedTime.minute, elapsedTime.second];
        myDateLabel.text = formattedDateString;

    }else{

Lines 12 through 17 give us our start/stop stopwatch functionality. When the user stops the stopwatch, the startTime updates to currentTime The next time  isStopwatchRunning is YES, elapsedTimeInterval will be zero, giving us a proper time.

We can now build and run.

stopwatch_2

And we have a working stopwatch. Next time, we’ll turn the pendulum into a flaming ball of fire with emitter nodes.

The Whole Code

Here’s the whole code for the scene:

//
//  MPMyScene.m
//  SpriteTimeClock
//
//  Created by Steven Lipton on 5/6/14.
//  Copyright (c) 2014 Steven Lipton. All rights reserved.
//

#import "MPMyScene.h"

@implementation MPMyScene{
    SKLabelNode *myTimeLabel;
    SKLabelNode *myDateLabel;
    BOOL isShowingTime;
    BOOL isStopwatch;           //changed from isStopWatch for clarity
    BOOL isResettingStopwatch;  //changed from isStartingStopwatch for clarity.
    BOOL isRunningStopwatch;
    CFTimeInterval startTime;
    CFTimeInterval previousElapsedTime;
    CFTimeInterval elapsedTimeInterval;
    CFTimeInterval totalElapsedTime;

}

-(CGPoint)gridPointX:(float)xPoint pointY:(float)yPoint{
    CGFloat xDivision = CGRectGetMaxX(self.frame) /5.0;
    CGFloat yDivision = CGRectGetMaxY(self.frame)/5.0;
    return CGPointMake(xPoint * xDivision, yPoint * yDivision);
}

-(id)initWithSize:(CGSize)size {
    if (self = [super initWithSize:size]) {
        /* Setup your scene here */
        self.backgroundColor = [SKColor colorWithRed:0.15 green:0.15 blue:0.3 alpha:1.0];

        myTimeLabel = [SKLabelNode labelNodeWithFontNamed:@"HelveticaNeue"];
        myTimeLabel.text = @"00:00:00";
        myTimeLabel.fontSize = 40;
        myTimeLabel.position = CGPointMake(CGRectGetMidX(self.frame),
                                       CGRectGetMaxY(self.frame)*0.80);
        myTimeLabel.name = @"myTimeLabel";

         [self addChild:myTimeLabel];

        myDateLabel = [SKLabelNode labelNodeWithFontNamed:@"HelveticaNeue"];
        myDateLabel.text = @"Date Goes Here";
        myDateLabel.fontSize = 40;
        myDateLabel.alpha = 0.20;
        myDateLabel.position = [self gridPointX:2.5 pointY:3.0];
        myDateLabel.name = @"myDateLabel";

        [self addChild:myDateLabel];

        //make a switch to a stopwatch
        //SKSpriteNode *modeButton= [SKSpriteNode spriteNodeWithImageNamed:@"solidcircle"];
        //modeButton.name = @"modeButton";
        //modeButton.position = [self gridPointX:4.0 pointY:2.0];
        //[self addChild:modeButton];

        //add the stopwatch buttons
        [self makeStopWatchButtonsAtGridPoint:CGPointMake(4.0, 2.0)];

        //Make the ball
        CGPoint tick = [self gridPointX:0.5 pointY:1];
        CGPoint tock = [self gridPointX:4.5 pointY:1];
        SKSpriteNode *bouncingBall = [SKSpriteNode spriteNodeWithImageNamed:@"solidcircle"];
        bouncingBall.position = tock;
        [bouncingBall setScale:0.75];
        bouncingBall.name=@"bouncingBall";
        [self addChild:bouncingBall];

/*
        //simple animation to the ball
        SKAction *bounceBall = [SKAction moveToX:tick.x duration:1.0];
        [bouncingBall runAction:bounceBall withKey:@"bounceBall"];

*/
        //add animation to the ball
        SKAction *bounceBall = [SKAction sequence:@[
                                                    [SKAction moveToX:tock.x duration:1.0],
                                                    [SKAction moveToX:tick.x duration:1.0],
                                                    ]];
        bounceBall.timingMode = SKActionTimingEaseInEaseOut;
        [bouncingBall runAction:[SKAction repeatActionForever:bounceBall] withKey:@"bounceBall"];

        //initialize everything else
        isShowingTime = YES;
        isStopwatch = NO;
        previousElapsedTime = 0.0;
        isRunningStopwatch = NO;
        isResettingStopwatch = NO;
    }

    return self;
}

-(SKSpriteNode *)makeButtonWithTitleAndName:(NSString *)title withImageNamed:(NSString *)imageName{
    SKSpriteNode *aSprite = [SKSpriteNode spriteNodeWithImageNamed:imageName];
    aSprite.name = title;
    [aSprite setScale:0.75];
    SKLabelNode *titleNode = [SKLabelNode labelNodeWithFontNamed:@"HelveticaNeue"];
    titleNode.text = title;
    titleNode.name = @"title";
    titleNode.fontSize = 16;
    titleNode.verticalAlignmentMode = SKLabelVerticalAlignmentModeCenter;
    titleNode.position = CGPointMake(CGRectGetMidX(aSprite.frame), CGRectGetMidY(aSprite.frame));
    titleNode.fontColor = [UIColor blackColor];
    [aSprite addChild:titleNode];
    return aSprite;

}

-(void)makeStopWatchButtonsAtGridPoint:(CGPoint)gridPoint{
    NSString *image = @"solidcircle";
    //make a base layeranchor is on the right side center.
    //anchor is right middle
        //make button 1 -- start
    SKSpriteNode *startButton = [self makeButtonWithTitleAndName:@"Start" withImageNamed:image];
    startButton.position = [self gridPointX:gridPoint.x pointY:gridPoint.y];
    [self addChild:startButton];
    //make button 2 -- stop
    SKSpriteNode *stopButton = [self makeButtonWithTitleAndName:@"Stop" withImageNamed:image];
    stopButton.position = [self gridPointX:gridPoint.x pointY:gridPoint.y];
    [self addChild:stopButton];
    //make button 3 -- reset
    SKSpriteNode *resetButton = [self makeButtonWithTitleAndName:@"Reset" withImageNamed:image];
    resetButton.position = [self gridPointX:gridPoint.x pointY:gridPoint.y];
    [self addChild:resetButton];

    //make a switch to a stopwatch
    SKSpriteNode *modeButton= [self makeButtonWithTitleAndName:@"Mode" withImageNamed:image];
    modeButton.position = [self gridPointX:gridPoint.x pointY:gridPoint.y];
    modeButton.scale = 1.0;
    [self addChild:modeButton];

}

-(SKAction *)moveToGridPositionX:(CGFloat)gridPointX fadeIn:(BOOL)isFadein duration:(NSTimeInterval)duration{
    CGPoint point = [self gridPointX:gridPointX pointY:0.0];
    SKAction *move =[SKAction moveToX:point.x duration:duration];
    SKAction *fadeInOut;
    if (isFadein){
        fadeInOut = [SKAction fadeInWithDuration:duration ];
    }else{
        fadeInOut = [SKAction fadeOutWithDuration:duration];
    }
    return [SKAction group:@[move,fadeInOut]];
}

-(void)animatedStopwatchMenuOpen:(BOOL)isOpen{
    //a method to make buttons appear for the stopwatch
    NSTimeInterval duration = 1.0;
    SKAction *moveButton;
    //get our buttons
    SKNode *modeButton =[self childNodeWithName:@"Mode"];
    SKNode *startButton = [self childNodeWithName:@"Start"];
    SKNode *stopButton = [self childNodeWithName:@"Stop"];
    SKNode *resetButton = [self childNodeWithName:@"Reset"];
    SKNode *title;

    if (isOpen){
    //push the on off to the side
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:5 fadeIn:YES duration:duration];
        [modeButton runAction:moveButton];
        title = [modeButton childNodeWithName:@"title"];
        [title runAction:[SKAction fadeOutWithDuration:duration]];
    //start to poistion 1
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:1 fadeIn:YES duration:duration];
        [startButton runAction:moveButton];
    //stop to position 2
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:2 fadeIn:YES duration:duration];
        [stopButton runAction:moveButton];
    //reset to position 3
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:3 fadeIn:YES duration:duration];
        [resetButton runAction:moveButton];
    }else{
    //close the menu
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:4 fadeIn:NO duration:duration];
        title = [modeButton childNodeWithName:@"title"];
        [title runAction:[SKAction fadeInWithDuration:duration]];

        [startButton runAction:moveButton];
        [stopButton runAction:moveButton];
        [resetButton runAction:moveButton];
        moveButton = [self moveToGridPositionX:4 fadeIn:YES duration:duration];
        [modeButton runAction:moveButton];
    }
}

#pragma mark -----target action
-(void)moveDateOnTop:(BOOL)isDate{
    //set positions for display elements
    CGPoint topDisplay = [self gridPointX:2.5 pointY:4];
    CGPoint bottomDisplay = [self gridPointX:2.5 pointY:3.0];

    //make two actions for use
    SKAction *labelHideAction = [SKAction group:@[
                                                  [SKAction fadeAlphaTo:0.2 duration:3.0],
                                                  [SKAction moveToY:bottomDisplay.y duration:3.0]
                                                  ]];
    SKAction *labelShowAction = [SKAction group:@[
                                                  [SKAction fadeInWithDuration:3],
                                                  [SKAction moveToY:topDisplay.y duration:3.0]]];

    //remove the previous action.
    [myTimeLabel removeActionForKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
    [myDateLabel removeActionForKey:@"dateLabelAction"];

    //run the appropriate action
    if (isDate) {
        [myTimeLabel runAction:labelHideAction withKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
        [myDateLabel runAction:labelShowAction withKey:@"dateLabelAction"];
    }else{

        [myTimeLabel runAction:labelShowAction withKey:@"timeLabelAction"];
        [myDateLabel runAction:labelHideAction withKey:@"dateLabelAction"];

    }

}

-(void)screenPressed{
    isStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime = totalElapsedTime ;
    //move buttons back
    [self animatedStopwatchMenuOpen:NO];
    //toggle action
    [self moveDateOnTop: isShowingTime];
    isShowingTime = !isShowingTime;

}

-(void)modePressed{
    //---------------------code for stopwatch here
    //show the stopwatch buttons
    [self animatedStopwatchMenuOpen:YES];
    //display the date on top
    [self moveDateOnTop:YES];
    isStopwatch = YES;
    isResettingStopwatch = YES;
    isShowingTime = NO;
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
}

-(void)startPressed{
    isRunningStopwatch = YES;
}
-(void)stopPressed{
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime += elapsedTimeInterval;
}
-(void)resetPressed{
    isResettingStopwatch = YES;
    isRunningStopwatch = NO;
    previousElapsedTime = 0;
}

-(void)touchesBegan:(NSSet *)touches withEvent:(UIEvent *)event {

    //find where the buttons are
    CGRect modeRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Mode"] frame];
    CGRect startRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Start"] frame];
    CGRect stopRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Stop"] frame];
    CGRect resetRect=[[self childNodeWithName:@"Reset"] frame];

    //scan the touches for button presses
    for (UITouch *touch in touches) {
        CGPoint touchPoint =[touch locationInNode:self];
        //--------------------------code for mode button
        if (CGRectContainsPoint(modeRect, touchPoint)){
            [self modePressed];
        }
        //--------------------------code for starting Stopwatch button
        else if (CGRectContainsPoint(startRect, touchPoint)){
            [self startPressed];
        }else if (CGRectContainsPoint(stopRect, touchPoint )){
        //--------------------------code for stopping Stopwatch button
            [self stopPressed];
        }else if (CGRectContainsPoint(resetRect, touchPoint)) {
        //--------------------------code for resetting Stopwatch button
            [self resetPressed];
        }else{
// shut down Stopwatch if touching anywhere else on screen.
            [self screenPressed];
        }
    }
}

#pragma mark ------game loop
-(void)update:(CFTimeInterval)currentTime {

    // time display
    /* Called before each frame is rendered */
    CFGregorianDate currentDate = CFAbsoluteTimeGetGregorianDate(CFAbsoluteTimeGetCurrent(), CFTimeZoneCopySystem());
    CFRelease(CFTimeZoneCopySystem());
    NSString *formattedTimeString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%02d:%02d:%02.0f", currentDate.hour, currentDate.minute, currentDate.second];
    myTimeLabel.text = formattedTimeString;

    /* ------- date or stopwatch display ---------------------  */

    if(isStopwatch){
        CFGregorianDate elapsedTime;
        //start the stopwatch by getting a point for elapsed time
        if(isResettingStopwatch){
            startTime=currentTime;
            isResettingStopwatch=NO;
        }

        if (isRunningStopwatch) { //get the time interval
        //update the time in the stopwatch
            elapsedTimeInterval =currentTime - startTime;
        } else { //keep start and current time the same for the next start of the watch
            elapsedTimeInterval = 0;
            startTime = currentTime;
        }

        totalElapsedTime =(elapsedTimeInterval + previousElapsedTime);
        //format and display the time
        elapsedTime  = CFAbsoluteTimeGetGregorianDate(totalElapsedTime, nil);
        NSString *formattedDateString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%02d:%02d:%05.2f", elapsedTime.hour, elapsedTime.minute, elapsedTime.second];
        myDateLabel.text = formattedDateString;

    }else{
        NSString *formattedDateString =[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%04d %02d %02d", (int)currentDate.year, currentDate.month, currentDate.day];
    myDateLabel.text = formattedDateString;
    }

}

@end

One Reply to “Living without Storyboards: Make a Working Stopwatch in Sprite Kit”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s